polyphenol antioxidant

Polyphenol and Compounds contain Polyphenolic Derivatives

Antioxidant supplementation with polyphenol extract blends

Phytochemicals, polyphenol, and their derivatives including the flavonoids, tannins, and catechins! They are molecules derived from plants that have potential benefit for human health.

One of the many proposed benefits is the potential for antioxidant effects.

Due to their structural similarities, the polyphenols act as antioxidants by donating electrons.

In addition, like many of the other antioxidant compounds! Polyphenol is associated with prevention of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer.

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Listed below are several compounds that contain polyphenolic derivatives.

* We are unaware of any published data examining the following compound effect in individuals or athletes. However, we have addressed them here! Since the positive results in recent research and their popularity as dietary supplements.

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Milk Thistle

milk thistle plantThis herb, otherwise known as Silybum marianum.

It contains the active flavonolignans which include the compounds Silybin, Silydianin, and Silychristine. These compounds are collectively known as Silymarins.

Silymarins are known primarily for their hepatoprotective effects. That included…

  • Protecting against toxins, including acetaminophen, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and D-galactosamine.
  • Protection against ischemic injury, radiation, iron toxicity, and viral hepatitis.

The hepatoprotective effects of silymarin are thought to include antioxidant action. It also prevention of lipid peroxidation, enhanced detoxification, and protection against glutathione depletion.

For liver disease, Milk Thistle supplementation can give a positive result. This can prove by an increase in the antioxidant status shown by hepatic Kupffer cells (detoxify the blood as it perfuses the liver).

Pine Bark (Pycnogenol)

pine bark extractThe French maritime pine, Pinus Pinaster, has been examined for its principal extract, Pycnogenol.

This extract contains a variety of bioavailable phenolic derivatives (catechins and flavonoids). The study reported that Pycnogenol has a strong free radical activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen.

In addition, it also seems to interact with the cellular antioxidant systems. Such as Vitamin C regeneration and protecting endogenous vitamin E.

Also, glutathione from oxidative stress, upregulation of intracellular enzymatic. Lastly, the nonenzymatic oxidant scavenging systems.

Pycnogenol has been shown to increase cellular glutathione content, SOD, and CAT activities in bovine artery endothelial cells (that line the inner lumen of the vessel), resulting in a concentration-dependent increase in oxygen and hydro-dioxide removal.

Grape Seed Extract

grape seed extractGrapes and wine received much attention lately because they have potential health benefits. That including the reduction of the incidence of mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease.

The polyphenol can found in grape seeds, skin, and stems.

Claimed have many favorable biological roles for heart disease. Grape seeds contain the polyphenol or proanthocyanidin. Thought to have protective properties against free radicals.

In one study, if scavenging superoxide anions produced biochemically and hydroxyl radicals. The proanthocyanidin grape seeds proved much better than vitamins C and E.

In addition, decreases in lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in liver and brain. Also, as an inhibition of reactive oxygen species production in peritoneal macrophages has been shown.

In this study, grape seed extract was more effective than vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene at similar doses.

In another study, grape seed proanthocyanidins were shown to possess a cardio­protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

This property was attributed to its ability to directly scavenge peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Also to reduce oxidative stress developed during this state.

The plant Camellia sinensis has been the subject of many investigations on the positive health benefits of tea.

In epidemiological research! It showed the daily consumption of tea can prevent the coronary heart disease. Also, atherosclerosis and some types of cancer.

The health benefits of tea are related to the antioxidant effects of its components. Namely, its polyphenolic tannins and catechins that are present in highest concentrate on green tea as opposed to types.

Although black tea contains a number of polyphenols as well (i.e., theaflavin gallate, Digallate, etc.). The effects of these compounds are not as well researched.

Polyphenol in tea seems to act in the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Also as a cell defense of a reactive oxygen species released during carcinogenesis.

Ginkgo Biloba

ginkgo bilobaThe leaves and fruit of this plant have been used as therapeutic agents in China for over 5000 years.

More recently, Ginkgo Biloba extracts have been used in western medicine. It used to treat peripheral artery disease and cerebral insufficiency.

It has been speculated that the beneficial actions of this extract are due to the antioxidant properties of its ingredients. Especially its variety of polyphenols including flavonoids and terpenes.

Ginkgo Biloba may exert its antioxidant actions by scavenging the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals produced as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation.

It has been shown in vivo that Ginkgo Biloba is active in the prevention of lipid peroxidation with age, and in the prevention of LDL oxidation.

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