Probably the most important component besides training is nutrition. How you feed yourself has an incredibly high impact on your goal. But let’s start at the very beginning.

What is a calorie?

A calorie is energy needed to raise one gram of water one degree. With 1000 calories (kcal), one liter of water can thus be increased by 1 degree. The calorie indication of food can be found on the packaging. There is also information in Joule to find. The indication of energy in calories is outdated and since 1968 no longer valid. The new unit is Joule (1 calorie = 4.3 Joule). Nevertheless, calorie claims are still allowed on foods.

What are macronutrients?

Macronutrients are the main component of our food and can be subdivided into carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (lipids). They have the following energy values per gram:

  • Carbohydrates: 4 kcal
  • Proteins: 4 kcal
  • Fats: 9 kcal

From these substances, our body is composed and without the addition of these, the human could not survive. Water can also be counted among the macronutrients, but the body of water can not gain energy (water has 0 kcal).

Protein / proteins

Proteins are among the most important building blocks of the body. Proteins consist of chains of different amino acids. They have the following two functions:

  1. They serve as an energy source for our body
  2. They provide the body with “building blocks” (amino acids) to build up body-own proteins (eg to build up our muscles)

Proteins are found in a variety of foods such as fish, meat, shellfish, etc.


Carbohydrates provide your body with energy. Our body relies on carbohydrate intake because it can not produce it by itself. Some of our organs such as the kidney can only use carbohydrates as an energy source. Carbohydrates have the following features:

  • Like proteins, they serve as an energy source for our body
  • They are used as energy storage

Now if we add carbohydrates to our bodies, they can immediately use them as energy or store them in the glycogen stores for later use. Carbohydrates can be divided into three groups:

  • Simple sugar (eg dextrose, fruit sugar)
  • Double sugar (eg table sugar)
  • Multiple sugar (eg in potatoes, oatmeal, cereal products)

Single and double sugars are faster available to the body than polyhydric sugars, but they will not fill you up for so long.


Fats also serve as an energy supplier. Their high calorific value of 9 kcal gives them almost twice as much energy as carbohydrates and proteins. They have the following functions:

  • They serve as an energy supplier
  • They protect the internal organs
  • They serve as solvents for vitamins
  • They are important for the hormone balance

Fats can be subdivided into saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids can be further subdivided into the following:

  1. Monounsaturated (eg olive oil)
  2. Diunsaturated (eg linoleic acid)
  3. Polyunsaturated (eg fish oil)

The polyunsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential and must be supplied to the body through food (omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids).


Fibers are usually ignored but are of great importance to our body. They do not provide the body with energy but are very important for the intestinal function. Fiber is found only in vegetable foods, such as wholegrain and cereal products. Dietary fiber increases satiety, preventing constipation and elevated cholesterol levels. They also serve as a nutrient for the bacteria in the gut. Thus, a smooth intestinal function can be provided.

What are micronutrients?

The micronutrients include the vitamins (eg, vitamin A, B, ..) and minerals (eg, calcium, potassium), which we can absorb from the diet. Every day, our bodies need micronutrients to keep it running smoothly. Micronutrients are just as important to the body as the macronutrients, but they are needed in very small quantities. A lack of Mirkonährtsoffen in the body can lead to death in the worst case.

A healthy diet

For the smooth functioning of the body, it should be supplied with all necessary substances daily. These include, in particular, micronutrients, dietary fiber, and essential fatty acids. The macronutrient distribution of your diet should be designed for your purpose. If you want to build muscle, you have to provide your body with more protein through your diet. If you want to lose weight, you have to eat less.

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